11 Steps Required to Grow Coriander in Urdu

Coriander probably originally from the Eastern Mediterranean (Greece) and the Middle East.  The fruits are produced mainly in Russia, India, South America, Morocco and Holland. The Romans, who used it in cooking and medicine, introduced it to Great Britain and was widely used in English cuisine until the Renaissance, when new exotic spices appeared. In Europe it was also used in the production of beer.

The usable parts of the plant are the fruits, the leaves and the roots, although the latter only in Thailand. Fruits and leaves have a totally different flavor. Drying destroys most of the fragrance of the leaves, although there are references of the use of them.

2.- Botanical characters

It is an annual herbaceous plant, 40 to 60 cm high, erect, smooth and cylindrical stems, branched in the upper part. The inferior leaves are petiolate, pinnate, with oval segments in the form of wedge; While the upper ones are bi-tripinnate, with acute segments. The flowers are small, white or slightly pink, arranged in terminal umbels. The fruits are diaquenios, globosos, with ten longitudinal primary ribs and eight secundaries, constituted by mericarpios strongly united, of yellow-brown color. They have a sweet and pleasant smell and a strong and spicy taste. Contains two seeds, one for each aquene. The roots are thin and very branched.

3.- Economic importance and geographical distribution

Currently coriander is one of the spices of greater economic implications, since it is a crop with good yield and very good international price. Spices are estimated to move about US $ 6 billion in the world market and the sector is growing between 5 and 6% per year.

The main coriander producing countries are Russia, India, Morocco, Mexico, Romania, Argentina, Iran and Pakistan. The main importing countries of cilantro are Germany, the United States, Sri Lanka and Japan.

4.- Climate and Soil

Coriander requires a temperate climate, and although it can tolerate a warm-temperate climate, it undergoes a marked decrease in yield. The concentration of essential oil in the fruits decreases to temperatures above 21 ° C, being the optimal temperature for the swelling of the grain between 15-18 ° C. It is not demanding in soils, being able to grow in francs, siliceous-clayey, somewhat calcareous , Light, fresh, permeable, deep and even slightly acidic, preferring limestones. Normally it grows in arid regions, although it is cultivated well under irrigation. It grows up to an altitude of 1,200 m.

5.- Propagation

The planting is done by seed, in direct sowing on the seated land. The average weight of 1000 seeds is 9.033 g and its germinative power is over 90% at an average temperature of 15 ° C and in 20 days of laboratory.

6.- Cultivation

6.1.- Plantation

The rows will separate from 50 to 60 cm and the plants of each row between 15 to 20 cm. When sheets are to be produced, these separations will be smaller.

Hole are made in the shallow soil and the seeds are carefully placed; Covered with dirt and irrigated the entire nursery. The seedlings will sprout about 15 days. First appear two small and strong leaves and at two weeks will appear the first characteristic leaves of the coriander described above. It is advisable not to expose them for a long time to the sun during the first weeks of life, although from the 6 leaves, a greater insolation will favor its growth.

Good results result in the sowing stepwise, during the spring and early summer, so as to allow a picking of fruit staggered. However, with the sowing in full summer, the collection will be deferred and there will only be one of foliage. From 4 to 5 kg of seeds are needed to plant one hectare, and they retain their germinative power from 2 to 5 years.

6.2.- Fertilization

In the moment of the work of the soil will be made the manure. The mineral fertilization will depend on the richness of the soil. In general it comprises 60 to 80 units of nitrogen, on cover, twice in ammoniacal form; From 80 to 100 units of phosphoric acid, at the time of the work, preferably in the form of lime superphosphate; Of 100 to 120 units of potash, in the form of potassium sulfate.

Some authors such as Gupta and Rams (Sandoval and Escandón, 1990) found a response in India in seed yield with the application of 5 ppm Zn. Ghosh 1985 documents the effect of the application of phosphorus (40 kg P 2 O 5) and nitrogen (60 kg / ha of urea) on yield and seed quality.

In Colombia, a study was carried out to evaluate the effect of organic fertilization on fresh foliage production and seed yield and quality. The highest yield was obtained fresh foliage treatment with urea (1.8 kg / m 2) and the lowest was presented with poultry manure (1.2 kg / m 2). This is due to the slow rate of mineralization that determines the low nutrient availability of organic fertilizers in a very short cycle crop (35-40 days). The treatment in which urea was used as nitrogen source had the highest nutrient extraction levels, with nitrogen and potassium being the most important, 81 and 141 kg / ha, respectively, reflecting the higher yield of biomass. Regarding the yield and quality of the seeds, although no significant differences were observed, the highest yield of pure seed was observed with the treatment with compost (Casava).

6.3.- Cultural works

In the dry season will be carried out the irrigation. Weeding and bins are recommended. When crops with a considerable extent are concerned, herbicides such as Linuron or Prometrina will be applied after sowing and in humid weather.

7.- Collection

It can be done at 40-60 days after sowing and up to 4 months for the production of mature seed. In this case, the collection of the umbels should be done before their full maturation of the fruits, first thing in the morning. With a tailor-fitted lawn mower, harvesting can be delayed for some days. Defoliators such as Paraquat or Diquat can be used.

For the production of leaves, will be carried out before the appearance of the stem, to avoid early seeds. If the older exteriors are harvested, the plant will continue to produce new foliage until it flowers. It is sometimes cut to a height of 2-3 cm above the ground and grouped in the field. In this way, the plant can grow back for a second cut, even though it does not do it as effectively as other aromatic ones like parsley. This is why it is common to only be harvested once. The whole plant can also be harvested, including the roots, since they are also used in some countries like Thailand.

8.- Pests and diseases

Very few diseases are known in coriander.

The most important is the bacterial spot (Pseudomonas syringae). It produces lesions that consist of delimited and angular veins of the leaf, which in the first place are in the form of translucent leaves and later and with dry conditions, the spots turn black or brown. When the attack is severe, the blade stains can bind together and cause a wilting effect. Under experimental conditions the pathogen also infects parsley. The pathogen is located in the seed, so the disease is spread through the contaminated seed. The rain and the irrigation favor the development of the disease.

Mild attacks of aphids have been observed, which in case of aggravation can be combated with sprays of Aphox.

9.- Post-Harvest

Cilantro has a breathing rate of freshly harvested moderately high (15-20 ml CO 2 / g · h), and other green leafy vegetables, and a relatively low production of ethylene (<0.2 l / g · ha 5th C).

It should be stored under conditions of high humidity and low temperature. A shelf life of between 18 and 22 days can be expected by storing the coriander at a temperature around 0 ° C, a period in which it will remain with good visual quality, although the aromatic quality begins to decrease after 14 days. A storage temperature of 5 and 7.5 ° C, will maintain the quality for 1 and 2 weeks respectively. With an air atmosphere with 5% or 9% CO 2 storage life lengthens cilantro 7.5 ° C, approximately 14 days. Enriched Atmospheres 9% -10% CO 2 produced dark - colored lesions after 18 days; with 20% CO 2 produced severe damage after a week.

The high ratio between its surface and volume makes coriander very susceptible to water loss. When cooling is not possible, wilting can be delayed by cooling the plants with water or ice, protecting them from sunlight.

10.- Applications and Trivia

10.1.- Medicinal Applications

The coriander fruit has the following properties:

- Eupéptico, since it facilitates the digestion.
- Beneficial in digestive disorders, indicated in case of gastritis, pancreatic insufficiency, heavy digestions, inappetence and flatulence.
- Carminative, because it eliminates the gases.
- Antispasmodic, and slightly toning the nervous system when taken in small doses.
- Convalescence, in infectious diseases.
- Toning and stimulating.

It has also been used as fungicide, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic and analgesic by external means. A property that has not been proven is that of vermifuge (expels intestinal worms). Some research on rats has shown that cilantro fruits reduce cholesterol in the blood: lowering bad cholesterol (LDL) and triglycerides and raising good cholesterol (HDL). This is because cilantro produces a decrease in the absorption of bile acids in the intestine.

Dry coriander leaves are an important source of vitamin K, which is involved in the hepatic synthesis of blood clotting factors and in the calcification of bones, since by promoting bone formation.

In 1998 one of the most important investigations was carried out on cilantro, in which cilantro was found to possess important chelating properties. Chelation therapies are a widely used method in medicine in patients who are poisoned by blood metals. Later Dr. Omura demonstrated that the chelating properties of cilantro are greater than EDTA (ethylene diamine tetracetic acid), since in fresh manages to eliminate any heavy metal in blood in less than two weeks of treatment. Coriander not only prevented poisoning, but improved the health of patients.

10.2.- Culinary Applications

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One of the main characteristics of cilantro is its antibacterial property, so it will act as a natural barrier when used fresh on food.
Coriander is a key component of curry powder. They are used in Sri Lankan and Indian cuisine, on grilled or fried dishes, to enhance the taste of food. Coriander leaves are very popular in much of Asia. In Thai cuisine is used to give more flavor to soups, salads, and in green curry paste leaves and roots are used. In southern Vietnam, chopped cilantro leaves appear as decoration on almost every dish, sometimes combined with mint.

In Latin America they mainly use leaves, especially Mexico with one of their most typical dishes, guacamole, which is a paste of avocados, tomatoes, lemon juice, garlic, onion, chilies and coriander leaves.

The Arab cuisine uses mainly the fruits as part of numerous spice blends, like Moroccan ras al-hanout.

10.3.- Curiosities

The generic name comes from the Greek word Korios, bedbug, referring to the disgusting smell of her green fruit.

The leaves of cilantro resemble those of European parsley in several respects. They have similar shape and both are best used in fresh, since the flavor decreases considerably after a prolonged cooking. In both plants, the root has a similar flavor to the leaves, and its flavor tolerates better the cooking.

11.- Active principles

Contains essential oils, fatty oils, traces of glycoside, tannins, calcium oxalate, etc. The chemical composition of coriander is mainly based on its essential oils, including d-linalool, 70 to 90% pinene, dipentene, geraniol, phellandrene, borneol, limonene and other minor components. The essence is slightly yellow or colorless.

Author: Department of Agricultural Engineering and Contents
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